[introduction] before two articles were discussed all sorts of advanced drive support system (the phylogeny of ADAS) . Last article of this series sleeps introductory driver monitoring and be addicted to the system that monitor, this is considered as full automatic one of driving crucial requirements. Next, we replace discussion sweep and rearview mirror. We will discuss technical tendency of future finally, the car that includes software definition and virtual reality and enhance reality.
01 be addicted to sleep the system that monitor and driver monitoring
The first be addicted to sleeps the system that monitor and a lot of ADAS are same, also be mechanical nature — installation is mixed between driveway the apophysis belt of roadside. Although faulty, but it is because exhaustion drives,the first decreases significantly the system that produces traffic accident (according to safety of traffic of American country highway management board NHTSA is in the statistical data) 1998.
NHTSA introduced the report that drives about exhaustion in the round in a report that published 1998. The measurement that this report recorded the catnap inside lab and car tool — at that time, will detect through measuring physiology signal catnap is very common. But this applies to lab environment only, because return,must study the situation of everybody and individual calibration data. Nevertheless, this report is mentioned studying the car holds a system, if shut eye monitoring, turn to sensor and driveway to dog device (NHTSA, 1998) . As a result of the limitation on the technology, these equipment were not commercialized at that time (Dinges, 1995) .
Perhaps the first famous electronic drowse detector is to change horn to sensor. The first commercialized system appears in 21 centuries first. Sensor of a steering wheel trails the distance with rotational steering wheel and rate. With respect to its itself character, this one information does not have a help. But if control these data couple rate, stability (crab and jolt) , absorb news resembling a head even, be united in wedlock with algorithm of a software, but compose builds a reliable drowse to estimate a system.
Normally the circumstance falls, these systems work on the freeway only, and be measured only small change direction, because go to stop in the city, a lot of turn, can make algorithm confused. These systems are used give the initiative phase of travel to come every time calibration driver, as a base line. The pioneer that rich world is considered as this domain by a lot of people — the more detail about its plan, read their product page please. This plan is run very good, but contemporary car is becoming owner and owner, below this kind of circumstance, the driver need not drive possibly completely. If the car is in control position, him monitoring is no point.
A new plan appeared, it can work below two kinds of circumstances, no matter be human driver,drive automatically still system, can solve this problem. This plan is called driver supervisory system (DMS) . People begins to explore DMS in 90 time end, but prepare devoted production till acting 2020 talent. Vision of DMS use computer, photograph like head and processing program, search facial the clew with the eye, participate in in order to ensure the driver’s attention is mixed degree. Sound very simple, but should carry out these algorithm reliably very complex however. This article of EE Times Article passes pair of DMS fan think of, introduced these challenges in detail (Barnden, 2021) .
European new car evaluates an organization (NCAP) asks compulsively now to use these DMS systems; To 2024 all new cars must have DMS system, in order to obtain highest collision and safe grade. Have many different have plan only, have to high end from low end. But adverse to car manufacturer is, this market is sensitive to cost height, the client is not willing to pay additional fee for this function.
Another trend is the driver monitoring expands include all passengers, the monitoring of this kind of type is called to take a supervisory system (OMS) . Car manufacturer is more excited to case of this one party, because they can serve as their comfortable will make money with convenience function. The driver can use gesticulation knead dough ministry identifying comes from definition car to install. In the car of Internet connection, video communicates or gregarious media applies program applicable OMS. Safe function can use OMS, whether is if detect,children stayed inside the car unmanned guard, or shut automatically empty a safe gasbag or the person under safe weight take up the safe gasbag of the seat. Safety application can use OMS to undertake the video inside the car is recorded.
The hardware of traditional DMS and OMS and optical parts of an apparatus are different. DMS is used normally those who contain global shutter is close infra-red into picture, and OMS uses those who contain visible light to coil normally shade shutter. Hope of most car manufacturer incorporates DMS and OMS monitor systematic) with the member that multiply for DOMS(driver, in order to reduce cost, make the plan of a smaller size.
Graph 1. OMS plan, picture origin: Business Wire
Ansenmei (the high-powered image sensor of Onsemi) is implementing a kind of original system plan, one coils sensor of shade shutter image can be used at DMS and OMS application at the same time, offerred ideal for DOMS, the plan that has sexual price to compare extremely.
A challenge is, normally installation is in DMS turn to axis or appearance dial to go up, and OMS best installation is on rearview mirror upper part or door pillar. Although the design is more complex, but more and more designs rise both union in order to save cost. A lot of car manufacturer installed the console carrying buy on the head that includes DOMS whole plan now, and installation is very common also in rearview mirror.
02 sweep and car lens are replaced
Sweep camera is installation is in car is external visible light camera, when backing a car in order to increase or jockeying drive visibility. Normally 4 photograph like the head: One is in front, one is from the back, still two lateral are photographed like the head. These photographing resembling a head is wide-angle lens, form the picture of type of a pearl eye. Image is handled and advanced algorithm incorporates the photograph of these 4 image and car. The airscape that arises from this shows the screen in dashboard monitor to go up, and of imitate car upper part photograph like the head, let the circumstance all round appear intuitionisticly in the driver at the moment. Sometimes these systems also are called complete to the perspective (Omni View) or 360 ° perspective.
Graph 2. Sweep system give typical examples, picture origin: ExtremeTech
The first car that owns sweep system is 2007 Infiniti EX35, by Ying Fei Ni Di and day produce joint development. First system offers this kind of airscape only, but newer system offers a variety of perspectives, be in especially more on high-end car.
When be united in wedlock with the ultrasonic sensor all round the car, sweep system avoided effectively to collide, suit to jockey narrowly space. Ultrasonic sensor still conduces to remind a driver to notice pedestrian or mobile object.
A few more advanced systems still can see the engine of car is built, at the back of see trailer when trailer even — be called sometimes X is smooth.
Side is photographed like the head besides use at jockeying, the side rearview mirror that still can replace a tradition is driving use in the process. Because photograph,can do very smally like the head, the dimension of rearview mirror also can decrease, this makes car more accord with an aerodynamics, save the fuel mileage that is as high as 4% or the add boat capacity that increase electric car.
Although change rearview mirror is feasible on the technology, but a lot of drivers do not like such doing, because they are used to,drive with true side rearview mirror. Another obstacle is, a few countries ask to regard backup as side rearview mirror, this denied the advantage that removes rearview mirror place to offer (but not be to be used at jockeying) . Accordingly, photograph replace car looking glass like the head slower than sweep system (Howard, 2014) .
The car that 03 software define
This one term already made the car that software defines the word of tremendous change in describing a car to design. Many research and development already was swarmed into to driving automatically the angle of the car, be in especially go 10 years. The calculation that all sensor place that support drives automatically require is measured, make the control of traffic system and sensor produces inevitable major change with use means.
More traditional method is there are a CAN central or LIN network framework between the module that includes this locality processor and software, this is very general before 2015. But become more complex as car and its system, need more centralized computation, stem from need, region controller becomes more general.
For example, should be united in wedlock all all sorts of sensor inputs, process data, send a statement to many safe systems in order to realize ADAS function, need an ADAS controller. Data rate also is increasing, need more high-speed data transmits an agreement. Final, as a result of the great treating capacity that drives automatically to need with advanced system place, calculate occurrence collect Chinese style (Morris, 2021) .
Graph 3. Car framework how left of gradual progress – is primitive system; It is among those who contain region controller is stylish; Right is computation of collect Chinese style (picture origin: EE Times and Siemens Digital)
The development that resembles a mobile telephone is same, consumer asks to obtain more digital functions and more long-term value newlier through software. Car manufacturer also is interested in this kind of mode very much, because they must pass the software in sky to undertake newlier be developinged quickly neatly, in order to realize new function and flaw patch. Developing new function while, they still can pass service and subscription to create new income source.
Be in right now, whole automobile industry is developing this kind in experience, new commercial pattern is explored between each Tier and OEM. A few Motor Corporation are undertaking putting on record in the identity that with software company is not Motor Corporation. Of course, tesla is with name of company of science and technology, be in early held water 2003, began to produce racing bike of the first Roadster 2008 (Reed, 2020) .
04 virtual reality and enhance reality
Mix to virtual reality enhance reality and Web 3.0, the Yuan Yuzhou that says normally namely, make a person excited. Yuan Yuzhou is the 3D version of the network, here all things have system of twin of a number, can bring brand-new experience, be enmeshed feeling and cooperation.
Already had on road provide head-up display (the car of HUD) . HUD is final overlay more and more number content, the buildup that serves as a driver is actual — for example, 3D navigation is umbriferous, may be 3D video communicates even. Can you have weather forecast?
There won’t be windshield below extreme circumstance; Device of a solid will be in front. Huge screen will replace windshield, replace this space with completely fictitious eye shot. Once achieve L5 class to drive automatically, need traditional windshield completely really no longer.
Day is produced offerred to wish fascinatingly here scene.
Graph 4. Arrive from what lose sight of visible, picture origin: Day is produced
A series of this article restrospect to call the mechanical cruise control of Speedostat at first, experienced ADAS to arrive from machinery of the electron evolve, the car that defines to software all the time and full automatic drive wish of scene and Yuan Yuzhou be enmeshed.
At present the transition of automobile industry is electrification, the technology is changing quickly. When feeling excited for new pattern and change when us, review the past and us to think the interesting history of the system of of course also is helpful today.
Barnden, c. (2021, may 13) . Busting Myths Of Driver Monitoring Systems. Retrieved From EE Times: Https://www.eetimes.com/busting-myths-of-driver-monitoring-systems/
Dinges, d. (1995) . An Overview Of Sleepiness And Accidents. J. Sleep Res. 4, suppl. 2, 4-14. Retrieved From Https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/j.1365-2869.1995.tb00220.x
Howard, b. (2014, july 18) . What Are Car Surround View Cameras, and Why Are They Better Than They Need To Be? , part Two. Retrieved From Extreme Tech: Https://www.extremetech.com/extreme/186160-what-are-surround-view-cameras-and-why-are-they-better-than-they-need-to-be/2
Morris, b. (2021, march 29) . EE Times. Retrieved From E/E Architecture Considerations For AV Development: Https://www.eetimes.com/e-e-architecture-considerations-for-av-development/
NHTSA. (1998) . Drowsy Driving And Automobile Crashes. N/a: N/a. Retrieved 11 30, 2021, from Https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/1661
Reed, e. (2020, october 5) . History Of Tesla: Timeline And Facts. Retrieved From TheStreet: Https://www.thestreet.com/technology/history-of-tesla-15088992
Unknown. (2021, december 1) . Invisible-to-Visible (I2V) . Retrieved From Nissan Motor Corporation: Https://www.nissan-global.com/EN/TECHNOLOGY/OVERVIEW/i2v.html
Unknown. (2021, december 1) . Software-Defined Vehicles – A Forthcoming Industrial Evolution. Retrieved From Deloitte: Https://www2.deloitte.com/cn/en/pages/consumer-business/articles/software-defined-cars-industrial-revolution-on-the-arrow.html
Avoid duty statement: The article is reprint an article, reprint this article purpose to depend on passing more information, the person that copyright puts in original work ‘s charge is all. If involve work copyright issue,article place uses video, picture, written language, contact please small make up undertake handling.