[introduction] although ” add boat angst ” exist all the time, but mixture motivation, pure dynamoelectric wait for multiform electric car (EV) is being accepted by more and more person place. The travel course of development that car manufacturer continues hard to raise electric car shortens charge time, introduce the main obstacle of rate in order to overcome this effect. Of electric car use gender and convenience sex easily to be charged the distinct effect of means. Because high power charges power station amount finite, quite one part car advocate still need to depend on a car to carry charger (OBC) will charge for electric car. Hold the property of charger to increase a vehicle, car manufacturer is using carborundum in exploration (the new technology such as SiC) . This technology article will discuss a car to hold the value of charger, and the function that semiconductor switch technology progresses how to drive a car to carry charger promotes brand-new level.
There is a variety of use to differ on the market nowadays the car that drives a system, include only by internal-combustion engine (the mixture motivation car that ICE) offers dynamic car, union to use internal-combustion engine and power system (XHEV) and pure electric car (XEV) . XHEV includes the car of two kinds of different types, mix motivation to be spent gently respectively electric car (MHEV) and total mixture motive force is dynamoelectric car (FHEV) .
MHEV basically relies on internal-combustion engine, at the same time compositive a small-sized batteries (it is 48V normally) . But, MHEV cannot rely on electric power travel only, electromotor aims to help reduce oily cost moderately.
Under photograph comparing, FHEV has stronger flexibility, because it can be not had,seam union to use internal-combustion engine and motor, among them electromotor by batteries power supply (normally working voltage limits is 100-300 V) . FHEV still can use energy of apply the brake to reclaim the technology charges for batteries, the energy that in using process of apply the brake, captures will improve efficiency.
All XEV, include to insert electric type to mix motivation electric car and pure batteries are dynamoelectric car (BEV) , provide regenerative braking system. However, because have larger batteries capacity, these cars depend on a car to carry charger to undertake charging greatly.
Graph 1: Put in varied electric car nowadays, include MHEV, FHEV, PHEV and BEV
The simplest charge means passes wire cable to hold electric car vehicle charger to join namely almost the electrical outlet on the wall (normally breakdown of need ground connection is protected) . Although this kind charges way is very easy, but most residence 1 class system (or the class of SAE AC 1 of the definition in J1772 standard) working power is 1.2 KW about, the course of development that charges one hour to be able to increase 5 miles only [the number of course of development that charges one hour to increase is 0.21 KWh/ according to car specific power consumption mile or 13 KWh/100 Km comes estimation. ] . 2 class system (or class of SAE AC 2) the heterogeneous communication power supply that uses electrified wire netting normally, the commonnest at public construction and commercial establishment. Power is supreme can amount to 22 KW, charge one hour to be able to increase 90 miles mileage.
No matter be 1 class or 2 class charger, it is to be electric car to offer alternating current, because this car carries charger,be the key that is communication input changeover dc output to be batteries to charge. Current, the most charger of market deploy is 2 class charger.
High-power dc charges picket calls 3 class, SAE 1 class and 2 class dc to charge normally picket or IEC mode 4 charger, it outputs volts d.c. , can charge for batteries directly, and need not the car carries charger. These dc charge the power limits of picket arrives from 50 KW exceed 350 KW, can be in about 15-20 charges inside minute 80% to batteries capacity. Undertake transforming to infrastructure of electrified wire netting considering high power level and need, although charge the amount of the power station quickly,be in mushroom, but relatively finite still.
A lot of car manufacturer are in at present batteries of 800V of 400V batteries instead. This kind of change aims to pass increase systematic efficiency, promotion function, accelerate charge speed and the add boat course of development that reduce wire cable and batteries weight to lengthen electric car.
The car carries charger analysis
The car carries charger is converter of 2 class power source normally, by power factor corrective class (composition of converter class of PFC) and segregation DC-DC. Those who need an attention is, although blame segregation configuration is feasible, but use rarely. Power factor is corrective class undertakes rectification to communicating power supply, carry power gene in 0.9 above, generate modulatory total line voltage for DC-DC class.
In going a few years, the market increases significantly to the demand of two-way system. Two-way system lets electric car can be offerred flow to the retrorse power of power source from batteries, in order to support all sorts of use, for example dynamic balance electrified wire netting is laden (V2G: Car arrives electrified wire netting) or power cut of administrative live wire entanglement (V2L: Car arrives laden) .
Traditional power factor method of correction involves union to use diode commutate bridge and step up converter. Rectification bridge is alternating voltage changeover volts d.c. , and step up converter is in charge of elevatory voltage. This buildup of basic circuit version uses develop of crisscross type step up to attack, pass paralell connection many converter class, improve efficiency in order to reduce ripple electric current. Corrective develop often introduces these power gene pit-a-pat silicon technology, if exceed knot MOSFET and low Vf diode.
As broad forbidden band (the occurrence of WBG) power switch, especially SiC power switch, new design method is able to come true. Switch of this kind of power has inferior switch loss, inferior RDS(on) And low regain body diode dominant position reversely.
In in the power factor of high power is corrective application (reach above for 6.6 KW normally) in, without bridge totem pole develop attacks become gain ground more and more. If the graph is shown 2 times, attack in this kind of develop in, slow bridge arm (Q5-Q6) with mains frequency (50-60 Hz) switch, and fast bridge arm (Q1-Q4) can undertake voltaic plastics and step up, fall in hard switch mode with more high frequency rate (it is 65-110 KHz normally) move. Although without bridge totem pole develop attacked to raised efficiency to reduce the amount of power cell considerably, but the complexity that it increased to command a respect.
Graph 2: Without bridge totem pole develop attacks
DC-DC class uses segregation type develop to attack normally, use transformer offers segregation, main purpose is a basis of batteries charge conditioning outputs voltage. Although can use half bridge develop to attack, but basically use double active bridge currently (DAB) converter plan, for example syntonic converter (for instance LLC, CLLC) or phase shift complete bridge (PSFB) converter. Latter, syntonic converter, especially LLC and CLLC, have multinomial advantage because of its and be paid close attention to extensively, specific advantage includes ability of limits of work of wide soft switch, two-way job and will syntonic inductance and transformer conformity the convenience sex in individual power transformer.
Graph 3: Two-way DC-DC allows to return electric power electrified wire netting between the fastigium that use phone
The car carries the SiC in charger application
To group of 400 V batteries, normally parts of an apparatus of first selection SiC 650 V. However, to 800 V structure, because have higher voltage demand, because this need uses rated tension,be the parts of an apparatus of 1200 V.
The account that the car holds charger domain to use SiC is his each quality factor (FOM) shows scene. SiC is in the specific R of unit areaDS(on), switch loss, retrorse restore diode and puncture voltage respect to have an advantage. These advantages make the plan that is based on SiC can issue reliable ground to move in higher temperature. Use these outstanding function characteristics, can realize the design of more efficient, smaller amount. Accordingly, the system can achieve higher power level (highest can amount to 22 KW) , and this is to use the traditional program that is based on silicon (be like IGBT or exceed a written guarantee) come true hard.
Although electric car uses the car of higher power to carry charger to won’t affect the add boat course of development of the car possibly directly, but it can shorten significantly charge time, conduce to solve problem of add boat angst. To come true faster charge speed, the car carries the power of charger to rising ceaselessly. SiC technology is producing crucial effect, make these systems become more efficient, ensure efficient ground changes electric power of electrified wire netting, avoid waste of the sources of energy. This technology makes people can design more compact, small amount and reliable car to hold charger system.
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